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美国留学:最易移民的STEM专业解析

2017年01月03日 10时11分 来源:互联网 浏览量:

  伴随着中国经济和互联网的发展,‘留学’这件事情似乎也越来越揭开了她神秘的面纱,它变得不再那么遥不可及。越来越多的‘90后’对自己留学之路的规划也更加理性。他们不再是一味追求所谓的热门专业,反而开始寻找自己真正喜欢的,或者跟自己的人生规划相结合的留学专业。这也是属于‘90后’自己的特征,他们有主见、有想法,也越来越知道自己需要什么。在他们眼里,留学不仅仅是留学,更是移民国外的理想途径。(咨询

  众所周知,美国是个留学大国,拥有着全球最优秀的教育资源,每年吸纳成千上万的海外留学生。然而,在美国的移民签证政策越来越收紧的状态下,留学生毕业后继续留在美国就变的越来越困难。那今天这篇文章,就来给大家分析下当下最火热的STEM专业,以及怎么好好的利用自己的专业,从而拥有更多的机会留在美国工作,甚至移民。

  2013年,奥巴马总统提出新的移民政策中一直提到STEM这个词,那STEM到底是什么呢?其实,STEM代表的是四种不同专业的大方向,共包含422个具体的专业(具体专业见文章下面的附录一)。本文就是要解开STEM的神秘面纱。

  S代表Science科学,T代表Technology科技,E代表Engineering工程,M代表Mathematic数学。如果你的专业属于这一类里面的,你将要获得比别人多17个月的OPT(全称Optional Practical Training,专业实习)时间。OPT计划是美国针对国际留学生颁布的一项政策。根据OPT计划,国际学生从美国大学毕业后,可继续以学生的身份在美国工作实习12个月,但是美国移民海关总署(ICE)规定,科学、技术、工程和数学(即STEM)专业领域内的毕业生OPT时间可延长至29个月。

  STEM,是美国乃至世界蓬勃崛起的前景学科,相关领域的工作也被认为是未来薪资最高、最有前途的职业。因此,STEM专业的留学生也享受到比其他专业学生多出150%(一年半)的毕业实习时间。近期有美国专家提出忧虑,认为美国目前在STEM教育上落后于全球其他国家,应该加强对其的重视和投入。

  根据全球经济论坛提出的数据,美国在教育系统质量上排名全球28,在初等教育质量上排名全球38,在数学和科学教育质量上排名全球47。然而在与STEM相关的工作中,超过70%都与计算机科学有关。STEM专业教育和STEM就业的匹配程度出现了巨大反差。同时,由于美国目前经济状况向下发展,与STEM相关的工作缺口非常巨大,已经达到了3700万。社会市场基金会(The Social Market Foundation)的报告表示,由于劳动大军的老龄化问题,每年将会有10万份需要STEM专业毕业生填补的工作缺口。而根据目前美国在学校中STEM人才的缺失看来,到了2018年,这一人才缺口将达到8600万。倘若那些从事非STEM专业工作的STEM毕业生人数不变,那么在2020年之前每年都需要额外的四万名STEM专业毕业生。

  STEM的学科性质决定了其自身发展的迅速性。据分析,到了2018年,92%的传统STEM工作将需要工作人员接受中学以上的教育和培训。而目前在高中开始时对STEM感兴趣的美国学生,60%在毕业时失去了兴趣。而那些选择继续在大学进行STEM学习的学生,则展开了在地球与空间科学、物质与能量、生物医学等广阔领域的学习。在毕业后的就职选择上,具有STEM知识背景的学生可以进入如航空工程、人工智能等充满乐趣的领域工作。另外,奥巴马总统已经提议投入800万美元提升STEM教育。所以国际学生在STEM领域具有非常大的发展潜力。

  那么如此火热并拥有良好前景的专业,毕业后申请OPT的条件又是什么呢?

  要申请OPT的延期,F-1身份的学生必须:

  1. 目前已经完成学位,处于12个月的Post-completion OPT状态;

  2. 已经获得了在科学、技术、工程、数学(Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)专业的学位。具体包括以下领域:Actuarial science, Computer science, Engineering, Engineering technologies, Biological and biomedical sciences, Mathematics and statistics, Military technologies, Physical sciences, Science technologies, Medical scientist;

  3. 受雇于美国雇主,在与其专业直接相关的领域内工作;

  4. 雇主必须参加移民局的E-verify 项目;

  5. 具有有效的F-1身份(注:OPT仍然属F-1身份) 。

  预祝有这方面潜质的同学们,抓紧时间找好自己的专业定位,抓住这给力的政策,从而使自己在留美这条道路上越走越宽,越走越好。

  附录一:史上最全422个STEM专业列表

  Acoustics

  Actuarial Science

  Aeronautical/Aerospace Engineering Technology/Technician

  Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, General

  Aerospace Ground Equipment Technology

  Aerospace Physiology and Medicine

  Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautically/Space Engineering

  Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Breeding

  Agricultural Animal Breeding

  Agricultural Engineering

  Agro Ecology and Sustainable Agriculture

  Agronomy and Crop Science

  Air and Space Operational Art and Science

  Air and Space Operations Technology

  Air Science/Airpower Studies

  Aircraft Armament Systems Technology

  Algebra and Number Theory

  Analysis and Functional Analysis

  Analytical Chemistry

  Anatomy

  Animal Behavior and Ethology

  Animal Genetics

  Animal Health

  Animal Nutrition

  Animal Physiology

  Animal Sciences, General

  Animal Sciences, Other

  Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Specific Effects

  Applied Mathematics, General

  Applied Mathematics, Other

  Aquatic Biology/Limnology

  Archeology

  Architectural and Building Sciences/Technology

  Architectural Drafting and Architectural CAD/CADD

  Architectural Engineering

  Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician

  Artificial Intelligence

  Astronomy

  Astronomy and Astrophysics, Other

  Astrophysics

  Atmospheric Chemistry and Climatology

  Atmospheric Physics and Dynamics

  Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, General

  Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other

  Atomic/Molecular Physics

  Automation Engineer Technology/Technician

  Automotive Engineering Technology/Technician[SITESERVER_PAGE]

  Behavioral Sciences

  Bio Chemical Engineering

  Biochemistry

  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

  Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Other

  Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering

  Bio informatics

  Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Other

  Biological and Physical Sciences

  Biological/Bio system Engineering

  Biology Technician/Biotechnology Laboratory Technician

  Biology/Biological Sciences, General

  Bio Mathematics, Bio informatics, and Computational Biology, Other

  Biomedical Sciences, General

  Biomedical Technology/Technician

  Biometry/Biometrics

  Biophysics

  Bio Psychology

  Bio Statistics

  Biotechnology

  Botany/Plant Biology

  Botany/Plant Biology, Other

  Business Statistics

  CAD/CADD Drafting and/or Design Technology/Technician

  Cardiovascular Science

  Cell Biology and Anatomy

  Cell Physiology

  Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology

  Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Other

  Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology

  Ceramic Sciences and Engineering

  Chemical and Bio molecular Engineering

  Chemical Engineering

  Chemical Engineering Technology/Technician

  Chemical Engineering, Other

  Chemical Physics

  Chemical Process Technology

  Chemical Technology/Technician

  Chemistry, General

  Chemistry, Other

  Civil Drafting and Civil Engineering CAD/CADD

  Civil Engineering Technology/Technician

  Civil Engineering, General

  Civil Engineering, Other

  Clinical and Industrial Drug Development

  Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist

  Cognitive Psychology and Psycholinguistics

  Cognitive Science

  Combat Systems Engineering

  Command & Control (C, CI) Systems and Operations

  Comparative Psychology

  Computational and Applied Mathematics

  Computational Biology

  Computational Mathematics

  Computational Science

  Computer and Information Sciences, General

  Computer and Information Sciences, Other

  Computer and Information Systems Security/Information Assurance

  Computer Engineering Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Computer Engineering Technology/Technician

  Computer Engineering, General

  Computer Engineering, Other

  Computer Graphics

  Computer Hardware Engineering

  Computer Hardware Technology/Technician

  Computer Programming, Other

  Computer Programming, Specific Applications

  Computer Programming, Vendor/Product Certification

  Computer Programming/Programmer, General

  Computer Science

  Computer Software and Media Applications, Other

  Computer Software Engineering

  Computer Software Technology/Technician

  Computer Support Specialist

  Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst

  Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications

  Computer Technology/Computer Systems Technology

  Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management, Other

  Condensed Matter and Materials Physics

  Conservation Biology

  Construction Engineering

  Construction Engineering Technology/Technician

  Cyber/Computer Forensics and Counterterrorism

  Cyber/Electronic Operations and Warfare

  Cytotechnologist/Cytotechnologist

  Dairy Science

  Data Modeling/Warehousing and Database Administration

  Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician

  Developmental and Child Psychology

  Developmental Biology and Embryology

  Digital Communication and Media/Multimedia

  Directed Energy Systems

  Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, General

  Drafting/Design Engineering Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Ecology

  Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

  Ecology, Evolution, Systematics and Population Biology, Other

  Econometrics and Quantitative Economics

  Educational Evaluation and Research

  Educational Statistics and Research Methods

  Educational/Instructional Technology

  Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Electrical and Electronics Engineering

  Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician

  Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, Other

  Electrical/Electronic Drafting and Electrical/Electronic CAD/CADD

  Electromechanical and Instrumentation and aintenance

  Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Electromechanical Engineering

  Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology

  Elementary Particle Physics

  Endocrinology

  Energy Management and Systems Technology/Technician

  Engineering Acoustics

  Engineering Chemistry

  Engineering Design

  Engineering Mechanics

  Engineering Physics/Applied Physics

  Engineering Science

  Engineering Technologies and Engineering-Related Fields, Other

  Engineering Technology, General

  Engineering, General

  Engineering, Other

  Engineering/Industrial Management

  Engineering-Related Fields, Other

  Engineering-Related Technologies, Other

  Entomology

  Environmental Biology

  Environmental Chemistry

  Environmental Control Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology

  Environmental Health

  Environmental Science

  Environmental Studies

  Environmental Toxicology

  Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering

  Epidemiology

  Evolutionary Biology

  Exercise Physiology

  Experimental Psychology

  Explosive Ordinance/Bomb Disposal

  Financial Mathematics

  Food Science

  Food Science and Technology, Other

  Food Technology and Processing

  Forensic Chemistry

  Forensic Science and Technology

  Forest Engineering

  Forest Sciences and Biology

  Genetics, General

  Genetics, Other

  Genome Sciences/Genomics

  Geochemistry

  Geochemistry and Petrology

  Geographic Information Science and Cartography

  Geological and Earth Sciences/Geosciences, Other

  Geological/Geophysical Engineering

  Geology/Earth Science, General

  Geometry/Geometric Analysis

  Geophysics and Seismology

  Geotechnical and Geo environmental Engineering

  Hazardous Materials Information Systems Technology/Technician

  Hazardous Materials Management and Waste Technology/Technician

  Health/Medical Physics

  Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering Technology/Technician

  Horticultural Science

  Human Biology

  Human Computer Interaction

  Human/Medical Genetics

  Hydraulics and Fluid Power Technology/Technician

  Hydrology and Water Resources Science

  Immunology

  Industrial and Physical Pharmacy and Cosmetic Sciences

  Industrial Engineering

  Industrial Production Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician

  Industrial Safety Technology/Technician

  Industrial Technology/Technician

  Informatics

  Information Operations/Joint Information Operations

  Information Science/Studies

  Information Technology

  Information Technology Project Management

  Information/Psychological Warfare and Military Media Relations

  Inorganic Chemistry

  Instrumentation Technology/Technician

  Integrated Circuit Design

  Intelligence, Command Control and Information Operations, Other

  Intelligence, General

  Joint Command/Task Force (C, CI) Systems

  Laser and Optical Engineering

  Laser and Optical Technology/Technician

  Livestock Management

  Low-Observables and Stealth Technology

  Management Science

  Management Science and Quantitative Methods, Other

  Manufacturing Engineering

  Manufacturing Engineering Technology/Technician

  Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography

  Marine Sciences

  Materials Chemistry

  Materials Engineering

  Materials Science

  Materials Sciences, Other

  Mathematical Biology

  Mathematical Statistics and Probability

  Mathematics and Computer Science

  Mathematics and Statistics

  Mathematics and Statistics, Other

  Mathematics, General

  Mathematics, Other

  Mechanical Drafting and Mechanical Drafting CAD/CADD

  Mechanical Engineering

  Mechanical Engineering Related Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician

  Mechatronics, Robotics, and Automation Engineering

  Medical Informatics

  Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology

  Medical Scientist

  Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry

  Metallurgical Engineering

  Metallurgical Technology/Technician

  Meteorology

  Microbial and Eukaryotic Genetics

  Microbiological Sciences and Immunology, Other

  Microbiology and Immunology

  Microbiology, General

  Military Applied Sciences, Other

  Military Information Systems Technology

  Military Systems and Maintenance Technology, Other

  Military Technologies and Applied Sciences, Other

  Mining and Mineral Engineering

  Mining and Petroleum Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Mining Technology/Technician

  Missile and Space Systems Technology

  Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation

  Molecular Biochemistry

  Molecular Biology

  Molecular Biophysics

  Molecular Genetics

  Molecular Medicine

  Molecular Pharmacology

  Molecular Physiology

  Molecular Toxicology

  Munitions Systems/Ordinance Technology

  Mycology [SITESERVER_PAGE]

  Nanotechnology

  Natural Products Chemistry and Pharmacognosy

  Natural Resources Conservation and Research, Other

  Natural Resources/Conservation, General

  Natural Sciences

  Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

  Naval Science and Operational Studies

  Network and System Administration/Administrator

  Neuroanatomical

  Neurobiology and Anatomy

  Neurobiology and Behavior

  Neurobiology and Neurosciences, Other

  Neuropharmacology

  Neuroscience

  Nuclear and Industrial Radiologic Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Nuclear Engineering

  Nuclear Engineering Technology/Technician

  Nuclear Physics

  Nuclear/Nuclear Power Technology/Technician

  Nutrition Sciences

  Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician

  Ocean Engineering

  Oceanography, Chemical and Physical

  Oncology and Cancer Biology

  Operational Oceanography

  Operations Research

  Optics/Optical Sciences

  Organic Chemistry

  Packaging Science

  Paleontology

  Paper Science and Engineering

  Parasitology

  Pathology/Experimental Pathology

  Personality Psychology

  Petroleum Engineering

  Petroleum Technology/Technician

  Pharmaceutical Sciences

  Pharmaceutics and Drug Design

  Pharmacy Economics/Pharmaceutical Economics

  Pharmacology

  Pharmacology and Toxicology

  Pharmacology and Toxicology, Other

  Photobiology

  Physical Chemistry

  Physical Science Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Physical Sciences

  Physical Sciences, Other

  Physics, General

  Physics, Other

  Physiological Psychology/Psychobiology

  Physiology, General

  Physiology, Pathology, and Related Sciences, Other

  Planetary Astronomy and Science

  Plant Genetics

  Plant Molecular Biology

  Plant Pathology/Phytopathology

  Plant Physiology

  Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management

  Plant Sciences, General

  Plant Sciences, Other

  Plasma and High-Temperature Physics

  Plastics and Polymer Engineering Technology/Technician

  Polymer Chemistry

  Polymer/Plastics Engineering

  Population Biology

  Poultry Science

  Pre-Engineering

  Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology

  Psychopharmacology

  Quality Control and Safety Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Quality Control Technology/Technician

  Radar Communications and Systems Technology

  Radiation Biology/Radiobiology

  Range Science and Management

  Reproductive Biology

  Research and Experimental Psychology, Other

  Robotics Technology/Technician

  Science Technologies/Technicians, General

  Science Technologies/Technicians, Other

  Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology

  Signal/Geospatial Intelligence

  Social Psychology

  Soil Chemistry and Physics

  Soil Microbiology

  Soil Science and Agronomy, General

  Soil Sciences, Other

  Solar Energy Technology/Technician

  Space Systems Operations

  Statistics, General

  Statistics, Other

  Strategic Intelligence

  Structural Biology

  Structural Engineering

  Surveying Engineering

  Surveying Technology/Surveying

  Sustainability Studies

  System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager

  Systematic Biology/Biological Systematics

  Systems Engineering

  Systems Science and Theory

  Telecommunications Engineering

  Telecommunications Technology/Technician

  Textile Sciences and Engineering

  Theoretical and Mathematical Physics

  Theoretical Chemistry

  Topology and Foundations

  Toxicology

  Transportation and Highway Engineering

  Undersea Warfare

  Urban Forestry

  Veterinary Anatomy

  Veterinary Infectious Diseases

  Veterinary Microbiology and Immune biology

  Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology

  Veterinary Physiology

  Veterinary Preventive medicine Epidemiology and Public Health

  Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology

  Virology

  Vision Science/Physiological Optics

  Water Quality and Wastewater Treatment Management and Recycling Technology/Technician

  Water Resources Engineering

  Water, Wetlands, and Marine Resources Management

  Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design

  Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster

  Welding Engineering Technology/Technician

  Wildlife Biology

  Wildlife, Fish and Wild lands Science and Management

  Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology

  Zoology/Animal Biology

  Zoology/Animal Biology, Other

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张晓畅老师,孩子目前在山东威海一

【解答】 你好同学 我是澳际崔老师 很高兴为你解答 英国是可以移民的. 详情

请老师介绍一下加拿大的马克马斯 张晓畅老师,我是北京理工大学大
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